For each runway and departure direction, there are clearly defined procedures according to the instrument flight rules - so-called SID "Standard Instrument Departures" - to reach the connection points to the overlying airways.These are the virtual waypoints LUMEL, MOROK and TORPA in the west, LASAT in the north, ELBEG in the east and OLBEN in the south. The points LASAT and OLBEN can also be approached in a so-called direct take-off. Before 2019, instead of the waypoints TORPA, MOROK, LASAT and OLBEN, the waypoints BASUD, HOC, GTQ and STR existed. Aircraft can also depart following an omnidirectional departure procedure (OMNI).
Further information on flight procedures can be found in the AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication) on our page Operating Restrictions.